Существуют ли продукты с отрицательной калорийностью?

продукты_с_отрицательной_калорийностью

Многие мифы о питании приходят и уходят, но некоторые все ещё умудряются выдерживать испытание временем. Один из таких – миф о существовании продуктов с отрицательной калорийностью, которые можно поедать в неограниченных количествах и худеть.

Что значит отрицательная калорийность

Концепция «отрицательных калорий» гласит: продукты с очень низкой калорийностью содержат настолько мало калорий, что на их переваривание и усвоение мы тратим больше энергии, чем её содержится в самих продуктах. Гипотетически после каждого поедания продуктов с «отрицательными калориями» наш организм может расходовать больше энергии, чем получает.

К продуктам с так называемой отрицательной калорийностью относят все виды капусты и листовых овощей, сельдерей, огурцы, перец, помидоры, а также яблоки и некоторые цитрусовые.

Для примера возьмём большую миску брокколи, в которой содержится 45 ккал. В теории отрицательной калорийности на переваривание и усвоение такого количества брокколи наш организм расходует больше этих самых 45 ккал. Но на практике организм тратит лишь 5-10% (в данном случае — не более 5 ккал) от этого показателя. Вот что говорят ученые.

Учёные об отрицательной калорийности продуктов

Исследователи из Examine отмечают, что теория существования продуктов с отрицательной калорийностью не подтверждается наукой. Это всего лишь маловероятная гипотеза, особенно если учесть такой фактор, как термический эффект пищи (TEF), который привязан к общему количеству потребления калорий. То есть чем больше еды (калорий) будет съедено, тем больше энергии организм потратит на её усвоение.

Термический эффект пищи выражает количество калорий, которые расходуются на переваривание и усвоение потреблённой пищи.

Как бы мало калорий ни содержалось в продукте, в зависимости от вида макронутриента (жир, углеводы, белок) на термический эффект приходится от 3 до 30% их калорийности. Другими словами – мы никак не можем потратить более 100% калорий, которые содержатся в продукте, ведь на каждые 100 ккал на TEF мы можем потратить максимум 30 ккал.

При этом необходимо отметить, что те самые максимальные 30% мы можем расходовать на переваривание именно белковой пищи, которая обладает самым сильным термическим эффектом. Как вы понимаете, продукты с «отрицательной калорийностью» к этой категории не относятся, ведь большинство из них не может похвастать значительным количеством белка в своем составе.

В среднем термический эффект продуктов с «отрицательной калорийностью» составляет около 5-10% (именно такой TEF у углеводов). То есть если мы съедим яблоко, в котором содержится 50 ккал, на его переваривание мы потратим около 2,5-5 ккал и в конечном итоге получим прирост «чистых» 42,5-45 ккал.

грейпфрут_2

Синефрин в моем грейпфруте

Впрочем, ребята из Examine всё-таки допускают вероятность существования биоактивного компонента, способного увеличить расход энергии, который выйдет за рамки калорийности самого продукта.

Некоторые соединения, которые находятся в составе определённых продуктов, могут стимулировать метаболизм (синефрин и нарингенин в грейпфруте), однако в любом случае они не создают отрицательную калорийность продукта.

Вывод о продуктах с отрицательной калорийностью

Преимуществом продуктов из категории «отрицательная калорийность» является тот факт, что в их составе, как правило, содержится много воды и клетчатки. Это может способствовать чувству насыщения и тем самым приводить к снижению потребления пищи в целом, что, в свою очередь, приведёт к похудению.

В целом, существование продуктов с отрицательной калорийностью очень сомнительно. Их либо не существует вообще, либо дополнительные затраты энергии на их переваривание настолько малы, что не заслуживают какого-либо внимания. При этом продукты, которые относят к этой категории, обладают эффектом насыщения, из-за чего их потребление может приводить к потере веса за счёт снижения потребления пищи в целом. Куда разумнее рассматривать эти продукты как низкокалорийные, а не как продукты с отрицательными калориями.

Источники:

  • Can food have negative calories, Examine,
  • «Negative-Calorie Foods» Still Count, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,
  • K. R. Westerterp, Diet induced thermogenesis, Nutrition & Metabolism 2004 1:5, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-1-5,
  • Fiber – It’s Natures Broom, Bodyrecomposition.

 

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Существуют ли продукты с отрицательной калорийностью?: 18 комментариев

  1. Anatoly Kuzmitsky

    Употребление холодной воды может ли приводить к снижению веса? Вода калорий не содержит, а организм тратит энергию на нагрев ее до температуры тела.

  2. Марат

    Конечно, термический эффект есть. Правда мизерный.. Ходить зимой в легкой одежде или купаться в проруби — наверняка даст больший эффект

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