Лайл МакДоналд о зоне гипертрофии

Зожник представляет перевод новейшей статьи Лайла МакДоналда, в которой он рассуждает, существует ли особая зона гипертрофии, которая максимально «растит» мышцы.

Материал представлен от первого лица с сохранением авторского стиля Лайла.

В середине девяностых я был выпускником университета со степенью бакалавра в кинезиологии, и поэтому думал, что знал все, что только можно было знать. В какой-то момент мне захотелось получить сертификацию олимпийских тяжелоатлетов первого уровня от Федерации тяжелой атлетики США.

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Для демонстрации был приглашен Уэс Барнэт (позднее он стал одним из топовых тяжелоатлетов). Тот парень был очень большим, и я решил расспросить тренеров о том, как Барнэт тренируется. Они сказали, что на тренировках Уэс просто выполняет много подходов на 5 повторений.

Само собой, это взорвало мой всезнающий мозг, ведь я знал, что зона гипертрофии находится уровнем выше. Как можно такого достичь, выполняя 5 повторений в подходах? Естественно, со временем я понял, что не все так просто в этой теме.

Небольшая история о зоне гипертрофии

В течение многих лет полагалось, что зоной гипертрофии является диапазон на 8-12 повторений. Поразительно, но я так и не нашел ни единого научного факта, который подтвердил бы связь между этим диапазоном и максимальным ростом мышц. Как правило, автор одной книги, в которой рекомендуется этот диапазон повторений, ссылается на другую книгу, а та, в свою очередь, ссылается на первую; такой вот большой круг идиотских ссылок.

Топовые бодибилдеры говорили, что в основном они тренировались именно в этом, или иногда в более высоких диапазонах (потому что от пампинга мышцы надуваются прямо на глазах). Но ведь это не что иное, как бросаенс*, не правда ли?

*Broscience – стиль рассуждения в бодибилдинг-кругах, когда человек с впечатляющей мышечной массой ставит свой личный опыт и непроверенную информацию выше научных данных (прим. Зожника).

*Broscience – стиль рассуждения в бодибилдинг-кругах, когда человек с впечатляющей мышечной массой ставит свой личный опыт и непроверенную информацию выше научных данных (прим. Зожника).

Теперь у меня есть теория, откуда взялись эти 8-12 повторений на самом деле. Если вы посмотрите на историю культуризма, то найдёте много рекомендаций выполнять 3 сета по 10 повторений.

Эти рекомендации были представлены в одной из ранних работ доктора ДеЛорма, хотя и встречаются в книгах, которые были изданы ещё до труда ученого. Так вот, у меня складывается такое впечатление, что во время выполнения упражнений парни как будто сбиваются со счета; черт возьми, я и сам едва могу выполнить больше 8 повторений без потери концентрации. Таким образом, иногда тренирующиеся выполняют 8 повторений, а иногда могут дойти и до 12. Бам! Зона гипертрофии стала 8-12 повторений и пошла в массы.

В недавние годы зона гипертрофии была расширена до 6-15 повторений или около того, при этом чем она ближе к нижней границе, тем больше тренинг ориентирован на рост силы (и на стимулирующее действие напряжения), и чем ближе к верхней границе – тем больше ориентация на чувство усталости и пампинг (Лайл имеет ввиду один из стимулов гипертрофии – метаболический стресс).

Моя собственная программа для роста мышц (известная как Generic bulking routine) использует микс из подходов на 6-8 и 12-15 повторений именно по этой же причине – она комбинирует механическое напряжение с работой на пампинг.

Существуют и другие подобные тренировочные подходы – DUP (Ежедневная волнообразная периодизация) и PhAT (Силовой и гипертрофический адаптивный тренинг), которые базируются на комбинировании тренировок с разными диапазонами повторений в недельном цикле.

Так существует ли диапазон гипертрофии?

Стимулом для написания этой статьи было недавнее интервью с Брэдом Шонфелдом под названием «Всё, что мы знаем о росте мышц – неправда». В интервью Брэд упомянул о 2-х своих исследованиях, которое показали, что если тренировочный объём подобран правильно, то и низкий, и умеренный, и высокий диапазоны повторений могут стимулировать гипертрофию (как минимум в краткосрочной перспективе, так как сами исследования длились не очень долго).

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Таким образом, 10 подходов на 3 повторения (хотя в самом исследовании выполнялось не 10, а 7 подходов по 3 повторения – прим. ред.) работали так же эффективно, как и 3 сета на 10 повторений. При этом подходы на 25-35 повторений (ранее считалось, что этот диапазон также стимулирует рост мышц, по крайней мере, – у новичков) имели такой же эффект, но при условии, если выполнялись до отказа. Кстати, раньше такой высокий диапазон считался подходящим для новичков, однако Брэд доказал, что он работает и для более опытных тренирующихся.

Получается, что мнение о существовании какого-то конкретного гипертрофического диапазона на 6-15 повторений (или любого другого) является некорректным. Пока тренировочный объём подобран правильно, эффект будет примерно одинаковым (хотя я всё же считаю глупой идею о том, что именно общий тренировочный объём является главным фактором для роста мышц). Безусловно, об этом было известно и раньше, даже Чарльз Поликуин писал, что если человек выполняет достаточно подходов, низкий диапазон повторений может растить мышцы (это ведь то, о чём мне говорили, когда я готовился к сертификации, не правда ли?).

Я не знаю, рекомендовал ли кто-нибудь человеку, который хочет построить мышцы, большую часть времени уделять тренировкам с высоким количеством повторений. Хотя это не мешает журналам о бодибилдинге каждые несколько лет писать об идиотских тренировках на 100 повторений в подходе.

Идея о том, что тренировки низкой интенсивности могут построить мышцы, была для меня, наверное, самой спорной. Однако исследования тренировок с ограничением кровотока/тренинг Каатсу дали повод предположить, что это действительно возможно, а ведь я не могу идти против научных данных (даже если это идёт вразрез с моим предвзятым мнением о том, что тренировки на многоповторку – это отстой).

Замечу, что мои ноги росли даже тогда, когда я занимался конькобежным спортом и тренировался с низкой интенсивностью/высоким диапазоном повторений. При этом стоит отметить и то, что скоростные забеги на коньках являются своего рода видом тренировок с ограничением кровотока.

Зона гипертрофии на практике

Тем не менее я по-прежнему считаю, что на практике диапазон в 6-15 повторений является плюс-минус оптимальным для гипертрофии. Для большинства людей в большинстве случаев работа в этом диапазоне – это все ещё лучший подход, который должен составлять основу тренировок.

И вот почему я так думаю: хотя в одном из исследований Шонфелда рост мышц был одинаковым и при тренировках на 10 подходов по 3 повторения, и на 3 подхода по 10 повторений, необходимо учитывать 2 важных момента. Основной из них – это то, что 10 подходов на 3 повторения длились целую вечность.

С 3-минутным отдыхом между подходами – это 30 минут на выполнение рабочих подходов поверх разминочных (к тому же при работе с тяжелыми весами разминка займет больше времени, чем при тренировках с более легкими весами). То есть на практике при тренировках 10х3 вы будете тратить около 40 минут на одно упражнение.

При тренировках 3х10 с 3-минутным отдыхом между сетами рабочие подходы займут около 9 минут плюс немного времени на 1-2 разминочных подхода; 4 подхода по 8 повторений с 2-3 минутами отдыха займут около 15 минут плюс разминка. Таким образом, за 1 час вы можете выполнить либо 2 упражнения при тренировках 10х3, либо 6 и более упражнений, если будете тренироваться с более высоким диапазоном повторений.

Кроме того, многие из участников исследования жаловались на боли в суставах, а несколько из них даже травмировались. Постоянные тренировки в низком диапазоне повторений изматывают человека, и если его суставы не предназначены для очень интенсивного тренинга, то, как правило, в долгосрочной перспективе такой человек обречен на поражение.

В низкоинтенсивном исследовании, в котором сравнивались тренировки на 8-12 и 25-35 повторений, результаты так же были идентичными. Однако участники сообщали о сильном недомогании и тошноте (имеются ввиду те, кто выполнял больше повторений в подходе); я даже подозреваю, что некоторых из них стошнило до рвоты. Подобный тренинг в многоповторном режиме изнурителен с метаболической точки зрения (даже при тренировках с ограничением кровотока люди отмечают чудовищную боль), ведь при таких тренировках уровни молочной кислоты повышаются и повышаются.

Одним из худших подходов, который когда-либо довелось выполнить персонально мне (во время моих занятий конькобежным спортом) был подход на 25 повторений в жиме платформы одной ногой с двухсекундной паузой в нижней позиции. На выполнение одного подхода ушло около 2 минут, и два сета чуть не «уничтожили» меня.

Я предпочел бы выполнить ещё несколько подходов на 8 повторений в любой день недели, чем так «убиваться». Ближе к концу своей конькобежной карьеры я работал на 5 повторений в подходе при силовой работе, а высокоповторный тренинг оставлял для тренировок с собственным весом.

Лайл Макдоналд

Лайл МакДоналд.

С практической точки зрения, работа в диапазоне на 6-15 повторений имеет много преимуществ и позволяет избежать обоих крайностей, о которых говорилось выше. Главное – этот диапазон позволяет экономить время. Допустим, вы стараетесь уложиться примерно в 40-70 повторений на 1 мышечную группу за тренировку (судя по обзору Вернбома, предположительно именно такой объём является оптимальным для роста мышц).

Работа на три повторения в таком случае будет означать необходимость выполнять от 12 до 25 подходов. Удачи вам с такими тренировками! В то же время работа на 25-35 повторений в подходе означает выполнение только 2 сетов, но это будут самые ужасные сеты, которые вам когда-либо доведется выполнить. Особенно это касается 2-го подхода, когда уровень молочной кислоты будет уже высоким и не исключено, что вас может стошнить.

Работа в диапазоне на 6-15 повторений подразумевает подход с использованием схем от 4 сетов на 15 повторений (что все ещё достаточно больно) и вплоть до 8 сетов на 6-8 повторений. Либо вы можете использовать более реалистичную комбинацию, состоящую из 4 сетов на 6-8 повторений (24-32 повторения) и следующих за ней 2-3 подходов на 12-15 повторений (24-45 повторений), чтобы в сумме получить общую рекомендуемую цифру (в данном случае это 48-77 повторений).

Так вы получите и механическое напряжение, и усталость, и хороший анаболический отклик без уничтожения суставов, проведения целой вечности в спортзале и поисков ведра, в которое можно было бы вырвать. Для большинства людей в большинстве случаев такой подход – наиболее оптимальный и должен составлять основу тренировок.

В некоторых случаях люди предпочитают тренироваться либо только в низком (8х6-8), либо в более высоком (3-5х12-15) диапазоне повторений; на это могут влиять строение тела и психологические моменты. Не каждый имеет такую структуру суставов или даже психологический запал, чтобы поднимать тяжелые веса (даже на 6 повторений); в таком случае более высокий диапазон повторений может быть более подходящим.

Пожалуй, среди женщин существует большая вариативность как в плане психологии, так и в плане строения тела. Я никогда не встречал мужчину, который не хотел бы поднимать тяжелые веса для того, чтобы производить впечатление на своих приятелей, при этом не каждый из них обладает суставами, которые созданы для таскания таких тяжестей. И несмотря на восстание ахинеи, которая творится в онлайне среди женщин, не каждая из них имеет ментальную готовность, чтобы тяжело приседать на 5 повторений в подходе. К тому же многие женщины просто-напросто не имеют такой структуры суставов, которая позволяла бы выполнять такие тяжелые упражнения безопасно.

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Есть женщины, которые любят поднимать тяжелые веса, и это главным образом исходит от их андрогенизированного мозга (андрогены – группа стероидных гормонов, в большей степени вырабатывающаяся у мужчин, – прим. ред.) и/или повышенной выработки тестостерона вместе с более линейным телосложением с узковатыми бедрами.

Также по сравнению с мужчинами, женщины ощущают меньше боли при работе в более высоком диапазоне повторений. Когда женщины тренируются с интенсивностью ниже определенного уровня (около 80% от 1РМ или около 8 повторений, выполненных до отказа), они показывают лучшую выносливость и более низкие уровни молочной кислоты.

Поэтому если кто и способен тренироваться с 25-35 повторениями в подходах, так это женщины, но никак не мужчины. И несмотря на заявления некоторых индивидуумов о том, что женщины всегда показывают лучшую выносливость, при тренировках на уровне интенсивности выше 80% от 1РМ (8 и менее повторений в подходе) разница между мужчинами и женщинами в этом компоненте исчезает.

Несомненно, тренировки с очень низким количеством повторений (Лайл имеет ввиду тренинг на 3-5 повторений в подходе) также заслуживают свое место. Несколько лет назад я писал о том, что такие тренировки позволяют увеличить максимальную силу и усилить нервно-мышечную связь, что в дальнейшем даёт возможность использовать более тяжелые веса при работе в высоком диапазоне повторений.

В то же время выполнение подходов в очень высоком диапазоне повторений (даже в моей Ultimate Diet 2.0 я даю подходы на 15-20 повторений) может улучшить работоспособность и буферные возможности мышц (способности мышц сопротивляться действию накопления молочной кислоты и тем самым задерживать наступление усталости). Работа в многоповторке также имеет плюсы в плане поддержания здоровья соединительной ткани. Я лишь хочу сказать, что не использовал бы 2 этих диапазона (3-5 и 15-20 повторений) в качестве основы для тренировок.

Также существует вероятность того, что разные диапазоны повторений могут прицельно воздействовать на разные типы мышечных волокон. Мы с Брэдом обсуждали этот момент в частной беседе (у науки по этому поводу имеется очень скудное количество данных, хотя существуют некоторые принципы в физиологии, которые поддерживают эту идею). С этой точки зрения, использование различных диапазонов повторений может быть предпочтительным подходом для максимального/оптимального роста мышц.

Для полноты картины отмечу, что Брэд придерживается такой же точки зрения и даёт следующий комментарий:

«Теоретически я бы сказал, что в качестве основы нужно опираться на диапазон 6-12 повторений, добавляя к нему тренировки с более низким и высоким количеством повторений. В результате такой подход позволит добиться максимальной гипертрофии».

Эрик Хэлмс в своей «Пирамиде для роста мышц» даёт те же базовые рекомендации:
«Если вашей целью является гипертрофия, тогда 65-75% ваших тренировок должны опираться на диапазон 6-12 повторений, а остальная часть – на диапазон ниже 6 и выше 12 повторений».

Независимо от указанных выше процентов, я думаю, вы поняли главный посыл: если вашей целью является максимальный объём мышц, большую часть тренировок выполняйте в традиционной зоне гипертрофии с небольшим количеством работы выше и ниже этого диапазона.

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Вывод:

Чисто с физиологической точки зрения исключительного диапазона гипертрофии не существует. Однако на практике тренировки в традиционной гипертрофической зоне (от 6 до 12-15 повторений в подходе) всё же имеют наибольший смысл для большинства людей при большинстве обстоятельств.

Источники:

  • The Hypertrophy Zone, Bodyrecomposition,
  • Categories of Weight Training Part 4, Bodyrecomposition,
  • Categories of Weight Training: Part 6, Bodyrecomposition.

 

Читайте на Зожнике: 

Периодическое голодание для похудения и наращивания мышц

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Лайл МакДоналд о зоне гипертрофии: 67 комментариев

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