Наука о пользе тайцзи

джек_ма

Самый успешный и богатый китайский бизнесмен Джек Ма тоже занимается тайцзи. Кстати, говорят этим диковинным (для России) занятием в Китае занимается больше людей, чем все население России.

Мы делали интервью с ведущим мастером тайцзи в России Владимиром Сидоровым, писали о важности расслабления, а не напряжения и публиковали несколько историй из цикла «Возраст счастья». Теперь настала пора раскрыть научные данные — о доказанной наукой пользе тайцзи для здоровья и долголетия.

Тайцзи (по английски — taichi) — очень популярная оздоровительная гимнастика (с элементами боевого искусства) в Китае. Китайцы практикуют тайцзи в огромных количествах просто в парках, дома, да в общем везде. Для них это примерно как бег для американцев или походы в фитнес-залы для россиян.

Даже главный китайский предприниматель Джек Ма и тот практикует тайзци и рассказывает, как применяет эту философию в бизнесе и жизни:

5 направлений работы в тайцзи

Для начала следует дать понять, что же такое тайцзи. Вот чем занимаются во время тренировок по тайцзи — из интервью с 6-кратным чемпионом России, 3-кратным чемпионом Европы, основателем школы хуьюань тайцзи «Облачный мост» Владимира Сидорова:

1. Восточные практики занимаются покоем – это первое направление нашей работы. По сути, первая практика очень медитативная – это погружение в покой, так называемое «стояние столбом». При длительном покое у человека развивается глубокий контакт с самим собой, со своим телом.

2. Второе направление – это то, что касается выстраивания растяжения позвоночника. С возрастом способность к натяжению у человека снижается. Отсутствие натяжения ассоциируется с возрастными изменениями в человеке. В тайцзи есть китайские мастера, которые сохраняют искусство натяжения позвоночника в течение всей жизни. Их рост не уменьшается с годами, за счет этого они сохраняют до девятого десятка полноценный набор набор физических качеств. Дедушке 85 лет, но он физически крепче юношей: на татами ты его не можешь с места столкнуть, а он тебя может.

3. Третье направление работы: это контактность, выработка сверхчувствительности к человеку, работа в парах. Какую-то параллель можно увидеть с эмоциональным интеллектом, насколько ты можешь движению человека сопереживать, в него встраиваться, прилипать-следовать, захватывать-ударять.

4. Четвертое направление: это туйшоу, «толкающие руки». Это соревнования по выведению из равновесия соперника: удары, захваты за одежду, атаки в ноги, болевые приемы — все запрещено, можно только выводить из равновесия. Кто тебя сталкивает — встает на эту линию, его пытаются сталкивать.

Владимир Сидоров в категории до 90 кг, туйшоу:

5. Пятое направление — это, в основном, таолу, или формы. Таолу — это комплексы упражнений, которые выполняются в определенной последовательности. По сути — пятый раздел того, чем мы также занимаемся. Все движения, из которых состоит форма, – это боевые техники.

Вот так выглядит комплекс хуньюань тайцзи 24 формы в исполнении Владимира Сидорова:

Доказанное положительно влияние тайцзи при заболеваниях сердца, артритах, воспалительных процессах, диабете 2 типа

Мощное влияние тайцзи на долголетие и здоровье лишь только в последние годы привлекло внимание ученых, которые начали проверять и измерять эффекты этих практик на здоровье.

В 2011 году анализ учеными медицинских баз данных (1) показали положительный эффект тайцзи при гипертонии, артритах, психологических заболеваниях, значительно уменьшает количество падений в пожилом возрасте и в целом значительно улучшает общий уровень здоровья в пожилом возрасте.

В 2015 британский журнал Sport Medicine опубликовал научную статью (2) о положительном влиянии занятий тайзци при заболеваниях сердца, артритах, хронической обструктивной болезни легких и рекомендуется учеными в том числе при раке.

Еще одно любопытное исследование (3) провели в University of California — в ходе ряда исследований ученые проверяли влияние тайцзи на уменьшение воспалительных процессов у выживших после рака груди. В итоге исследование показало уменьшение количества основных маркеров воспаления после 3 месяцев занятий (3 раза в неделю по 2 часа):

Снимок экрана 2016-09-26 в 12.25.51

Уменьшение маркеров воспалительных процессов после 3 месяцев занятий тайцзи (линия TCC) у выживших после рака груди по сравнению с когнитивно-поведенческой терапией (CBT). Источник: researchgate.net

Исследование (4), опубликованное в New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) показало, что пациенты с болезнью Паркинсона значительно улучшали походку, осанку и меньше падали.

Еще одно исследование (5) использования практики тайцзи среди хронических «сердечников» показало значительное улучшение качества жизни и сна.

У больных сахарным диабетом 2 типа согласно исследованию (6) практика тайцзи помогает улучшить уровни сахара в крови и улучшить отклик иммунной системы.

Тайцзи против депрессии

Данные еще одного исследования (7) опубликованного в American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry показывают, что еженедельные занятия тайцзи вместе со стандартным лечением депрессии помогают избавиться от симптомов депрессии

В другом исследовании о положительном влиянии тайзци на больных депрессией принимало участие 112 больных старше 60 лет. Людей разделили случайным образом на 2 группы: одна раз в неделю слушала 2-часовую лекцию о ЗОЖ, вторая — еженедельные 2-часовые практики тайцзи. Плюс к этому обе группы получали медикаментозную помощь в борьбе с депрессией. В результате 10-недельного эксперимента 94% участников, занимавшиеся тайцзи, получили оценку 10 и меньше по Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (тест на депрессию, в котором превышение 10 означает официальный диагноз «депрессия»). Среди тех, кто не занимался такого же уровня добились только 77% участников.

Тайцзи — гимнастика для здоровья и долголетия

Имеются также свидетельства влияния тайцзи на общее состояние иммунитета, долголетие, положительное влияние на сон. Официальная наука пока только начинает изучать тайцзи и применение этих практик для помощи больным, а главное всем кто хочет не болеть.

К сожалению, занятия тайцзи невозможно освоить по Youtube без прямой передачи от мастера, да и качество занятий и их влияние также зависит от уровня мастера, а потому применение этих практик сильно затруднено, если вы находитесь не в Китае.

 

Источники:

1. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Aug;46(10):713-8. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.080622. Epub 2011 May 16.
Systematic reviews of t’ai chi: an overview. Lee MS1, Ernst E.

2. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Apr;50(7):397-407. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094388. Epub 2015 Sep 17.
The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions-cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses.
Chen YW1, Hunt MA1, Campbell KL1, Peill K2, Reid WD3.

3. Tai Chi, Cellular Inflammation, and Transcriptome Dynamics in Breast Cancer Survivors With Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial& Article (PDF Available) in JNCI Monographs 2014(50):295-301 · November 2014 with 73 Reads DOI: 10.1093/jncimonographs/lgu028 · Source: PubMed

4. Tai Chi and Postural Stability in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Fuzhong Li, Ph.D., Peter Harmer, Ph.D., M.P.H., Kathleen Fitzgerald, M.D., Elizabeth Eckstrom, M.D., M.P.H., Ronald Stock, M.D., Johnny Galver, P.T., Gianni Maddalozzo, Ph.D., and Sara S. Batya, M.D. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:511-519 February 9, 2012.

5. Med Sport Sci. 2008;52:195-208. doi: 10.1159/000134300.
T’ai Chi exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. Yeh GY1, Wayne PM, Phillips RS.

6. Br J Sports Med 2009;43:845-850 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.043562
Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise improves T cell helper function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increase in T-bet transcription factor and IL-12 production
S-H Yeh1, H Chuang2, L-W Lin3, C-Y Hsiao4, P-W Wang5, R-T Liu5, K D Yang2.

7. Effect of Tai Chi on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Authors Peter M. Wayne PhD, Jacquelyn N. Walsh BS, Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae PhD, RN, Rebecca E. Wells MD, MPH, Kathryn V. Papp PhD, Nancy J. Donovan MD, Gloria Y. Yeh MD, MPH.

 

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Наука о пользе тайцзи: 27 комментариев

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