Индивидуальные различия: самый важный фактор для прогресса

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Известный тренер, фитнес-эксперт, основатель Strength & Conditioning Research Review и много чего еще Брет Контрерас написал статью о том, что выходе исследований обычно получают средние величины и общие заключения могут как подходить лично вам, так и не подходить. Мы перевели для вас этот текст.

Когда мы руководствуемся исследованиями для построения своей диеты и тренировочной программы, они дают нам лишь общие рекомендации. Помните, что ответные реакции организма на нагрузки и питание у разных людей могут сильно варьироваться.

Разберем несколько важных моментов, о которых исследования обычно недоговаривают.

Быть кардионагрузкам или не быть?

Хотя у не всех людей аэробные нагрузки вызывают повышение выносливости, чувствительности к инсулину или нормализацию давления (см. исследование), обычно такие тренировки проводят для улучшения фигуры. Если вы хотите избавиться от лишнего жира, добавляя в программу кардио, надо учесть дополнительные факторы, влияющие на результаты:

· Аппетит и количество потребляемых калорий,
· Уровень энергии и физической активности вне зала,
· Количество и качество сна,
· Акцент на силовых тренировках (т.е. не помешает ли аэробная нагрузка прогрессу с железом),
· Дисциплина в течение дня (т.е. не повлияет ли дополнительная нагрузка на дальнейшее соблюдение режима тренировок и питания).

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Читайте также наш Гид по кардио: кому, когда, зачем и сколько.

Кардио и аппетит: индивидуальные особенности

На первый взгляд, кардио не особо влияет на аппетит (см. недавний мета-анализ). Однако, в данном исследовании наблюдали за потреблением калорий после 50-минутной низкоинтенсивной кардиотренировки (50% от максимальной ЧСС).

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На графике четко видно, насколько различались результаты по каждому из 23 участников. Сплошная линия – калораж без тренировок (т.е. участники не компенсировали потраченные калории). А пунктирная – уровень, когда объем дополнительно поглощенных калорий равен потраченному на кардиотренировке. Как видите, у ряда участников сверхкомпенсация калорий (съели потом больше, чем израсходовали).

Всего у пары человек получился дефицит более 300-600 ккал, а значительное число людей столько же добавило!

Как это применить вам? Просто понаблюдать – повышается ли аппетит после низкоинтенсивного кардио. Если да, то такие тренировки не для вас. Кстати, еще одно исследование показало, что люди, склонные компенсировать нагрузки едой, обычно предпочитают продукты с высоким содержанием жиров и углеводов. Просто едят для удовольствия.

Так что если вы обожаете торты, мороженое и все такое, держитесь подальше от затянутых кардионагрузок и попробуйте короткие интервальные (некоторые исследования отмечали понижение аппетита после них, но пока данных маловато).

Кардио и нетренировочная активность (NEAT)

Физическая активность в повседневной жизни имеет огромное значение для регулирования веса. Какое влияние оказывает на нее кардио? Согласно этому исследованию – различное.

34 участницы занимались энергичной ходьбой в течение 13 недель: у одних при этом повышался уровень активности, а у других снижался! Быть может, они слишком утомлялись или считали, что после тренировки можно ничего не делать, но разница в итоге значительная:

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По вертикали: затраты калорий от физической активности в течение суток. Синие столбцы — группа, у которой не снижалась нетренировочная активность (NEAT), красные — группа, у которой снижалась тренировочная активность. По горизонтали: до тренировки, в тренировочный день, после тренировок в нетренировочный день.

Как это применить вам? Если утомление после кардиотренировки заставляет вас просиживать остаток дня без движения, то подобные нагрузки приносят больше вреда, чем пользы. Если же ощущаете прилив энергии и двигаетесь больше – то кардио поможет вам похудеть. Как видите, опять все индивидуально.

Кардио и сон

Казалось бы, физические нагрузки помогают заснуть (см. новый мета-анализ) и даже спасают страдающих от бессонницы (см. исследование). Однако у кого-то тренировки могут вызвать и нарушения сна. Например, данное исследование показало, что 53,9% из 256 студентов колледжа спали намного хуже после напряженных тренировок.

Цикл сон-бодрствование в большой степени зависит от генетики (см. исследование), так что некоторые люди от природы более расположены к расстройствам сна. Недавний мета-анализ обнаружил, что даже у спортсменов элитного уровня наблюдаются разные проявления бессонницы, которые ухудшаются в тренировочные дни (по сравнению с днями отдыха).

Как это применить: если кардиотренировки улучшают сон, то занимайтесь на здоровье (положительная связь между сном и мышечной массой обнаружена этим исследованием). Если же замечаете, что сон портится, то откажитесь от кардио.

Сокращение времени и ухудшение качества сна связаны с ожирением, резистентностью к инсулину, диабетом 2 типа, метаболическим синдромом и повышенной смертностью (см. исследование).

Кардио и железо

Впервые негативное взаимодействие между силовыми и аэробными нагрузками было выявлено в 1980-м в этом исследовании. К счастью, теперь мы знаем намного больше: разумный объем кардио не помешает набирать мышцы.

Однако, когда аэробные тренировки становятся слишком частыми и продолжительными (с определенной интенсивностью), то прогресс в силе и массе может пострадать. Регулярное повышение рабочего веса заставляет трудиться на пределе не только мускулатуру, но и психику.

Одно исследование показало, что решение напряженных умственных задач понизило результаты в последующих отжиманиях и подъемах корпуса. Конечно, кардио не настолько напрягает, однако данная работа обнаружила, что на спортивные достижения может повлиять что угодно.

Как это применить вамЕсли вы замечаете, что дополнительные кардионагрузки негативно влияют на силовые упражнения, попробуйте понизить интенсивность (например, ходьба вместо бега) и разнесите тренировки как можно дальше по времени. Или же исключите полностью. Если же повезло и кардио не влияет, то ни в коем случае не отказывайтесь от его полезных эффектов.

Кардио и сила воли

Согласно некоторым исследованиям наша воля – ограниченный ресурс, который постепенно расходуется при выполнении различных задач. После преодоления стрессовых ситуаций человек склонен расслабляться, это феномен получил название «истощение эго».

Обнаружена связь между истощением эго и ИМТ (см. исследование), уверенностью в своей способности изменить вес (см. исследование) и импульсивностью (см. исследование). И опять индивидуальные различия: одни люди больше зависят от истощения эго, чем другие (см. исследование).

Как это применить вам: допустим, вы жаворонок и любите каждое утро начинать с пробежки, после которой заряжаетесь энергией на весь день. Тогда кардио для вас. Если же бег вам ненавистен и поутру вы с трудом заставляете себя тренироваться (кстати, о генетической предрасположенности к различным видам тренировок говорится здесь, здесь и здесь), утренние пробежки только ухудшат ваше состояние. После них в течение дня вы будете переедать, налегая на джанк, так что лучше откажитесь от такой формы кардио.

Тренировки с отягощениями и развитие силы/массы

Прибавки мышечной массы в ответ на конкретную тренировочную программу определяется множеством переменных. Посмотрите, например, график из этой работы, на котором отражены изменения в площади поперечного сечения квадрицепса. 53 участника, не имевших опыта тренировок, выполняли разгибания ног в 4 подходах по 10 повторов (каждой ногой) с 80% от 1ПМ и 2-минутными интервалами отдыха, 3 раза в неделю, 9 недель подряд. Все должны были бы прибавить в росте мышц?

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Изменение площади поперечного сечения квадрицепса. Каждый столбик — конкретный человек.

Крайний столбик справа показывает среднюю прибавку — около 5%. Но поглядите, насколько разные показатели у участников, от -2,5% до почти 20%. Хотя большинство добилось гипертрофии, пятеро участников потеряли мышцы.

Кстати, генетическая предрасположенность к гипертрофии зависит от мышечной группы, т.е. одни мышцы легко накачиваются, а другие отказываются расти (см. исследование). Особо заметна разница в этой работе, где из 45 мужчин один участник добился 484% роста ягодичных (почти в 5 раз больше), чем другой.

С силой тоже не все так однозначно, посмотрите график индивидуальных достижений из этого исследования. Участники тренировались по программе для параллельного развития и силы, и выносливости.

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Изменения в силовых результатах после 21-недельной тренировочной программы. Каждый столбец — конкретный человек.

Это изменения результатов в изометрическом жиме ногами после 21-недельной программы. Одна участница стала слабее на 12%, а другая – сильнее на 87%!

Еще одна работа показала, что люди с высоким откликом на тренировки развивают значительно больше силы от 2 подходов приседаний в неделю, чем люди со средним и низким откликом, выполнявшие 8-16 сетов в неделю.

Значительные различия в индивидуальных реакциях на тренировки многократно описаны в научной литературе (см. исследование). Это во многом обусловлено генетикой, мы знаем, что рост мышц связан с деятельностью миосателлитной системы и производством гормона роста (см. исследование).

Разработка индивидуальной программы

Учитывая всю вышеприведенную информацию, каждый человек должен подстраивать тренировочную программу под себя, индивидуально регулируя различные параметры:

· Объем
· Частота
· Рабочий вес
· Величина усилия
· Выбор упражнений.

Возьмем, к примеру, тренировочный объем: этот новый мета-анализ рекомендует для оптимальной гипертрофии выполнять 10 и более подходов для мышечной группы в неделю.

Опять же, конечно, это лишь общая рекомендация. Ваш тренировочный напарник может прекрасно расти на 15 сетах, а вы, если делаете более 8, только перегружаете суставы.

Тип упражнения тоже влияет: 10 подходов разгибаний ног совсем не то же самое, что 10 подходов приседаний. Более того – некоторые люди из-за генетических особенностей растут от одного рабочего сета лучше, чем от многократных (см. исследование).

Индивидуальные различия в диапазоне движения

Выбор упражнений тоже зависит от особенностей вашего телосложения и работы суставов. Многие упражнения для ног, например, требуют хорошей мобильности тазового пояса.

Чтобы полноценно выполнять приседание на двух и одной ноге и жим ногами в тренажере, угол сгибания в тазобедренных суставах должен быть не менее 120 градусов. Если же ваш диапазон сгибания заканчивается раньше, то вы, опускаясь ниже, будете наклонять таз и округлять низ спины. Посмотрите таблицу из этого исследования.

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В группе из 200 человек разница в диапазоне достигла 60 градусов: 140 — у самого гибкого и 80 — у наименее гибкого. Последний не мог присесть ниже параллели, не округляя низ спины.

Как это применить вам: если у вас хорошая подвижность суставов, то сможете делать большинство упражнений как на картинке из учебника. Однако, если мобильности не хватает, полноамплитудные упражнения могут повредить ваши суставы. Помимо вышеупомянутых движений это относится к отжиманиям на брусьях, жимам гантелей лежа, сведениям рук, становым тягам на прямых ногах и прочим.

Различия в величине повреждений мышц

Физиология также влияет на выбор упражнений, а еще на объем и частоту. Некоторые люди получают больше микротравм от нагрузки и вынуждены дольше восстанавливаться после тренировки (см. исследование). Что еще важнее, некоторые более склонны к повреждениям связок и сухожилий (см. исследование, исследование и исследование).

Как это применить вам: кто-то может выложиться в 5 подходах приседаний и становых, а на следующий день прекрасно себя чувствовать. Другие люди после такой нагрузки должны приходить в себя несколько дней, чтобы повторить тренировку.

Если вы восстанавливаетесь быстро, то можете получить пользу от частых тренировок, большего объема и разнообразия упражнений.

Если же после тренировки слишком долго все болит, то вы можете:

1. уменьшить частоту (не лучший вариант, на наш взгляд),

2. сократить объем,

3. понизить интенсивность и/или

4. выбрать упражнения, которые не приводят к заметной болезненности. Движения, которые нагружают мышцы в растянутой позиции (например, становые тяги на прямых ногах или выпады), производят больше микротравм, чем упражнения, нагрузка которых максимальна в сокращенной позиции (например, гиперэкстензии и мосты).

Заключение

Индивидуальные различия имеют критическое значение для составления оптимальной тренировочной программы. Кому-то кардио поможет похудеть – а кому-то нет. Кого-то становая сделает сильнее – а кого-то нет. Кто-то наберет максимум мышц 3 тренировками в неделю – а кто-то нет.

И то, что сработало для вас сейчас, может не сработать через месяц или через год. Слишком много переменных надо учесть, и наука лишь начинает исследовать индивидуальные различия. Так что, применяя новейшие научные рекомендации, всегда прислушивайтесь к своему телу и выбирайте то, что подходит именно вам.

Источник: bretcontreras.com

Перевод для Зожника: Алексей Republicommando

 

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Индивидуальные различия: самый важный фактор для прогресса: 134 комментария

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