Эффект EPOC или «дожигание» калорий после тренировки

после_тренировки

Отдыхаешь после тренировки — а калории дожигаются. Сколько именно, как долго и от чего зависит? Об этом статья, собственно.

Зожник представляет перевод обзора учёного Лэна Кравитца о посттренировочном эффекте EPOC — дополнительном расходе энергии после тренировки. 

Повышение расхода энергии после тренировки происходит благодаря избыточному потреблению кислорода после нагрузки (он же – кислородный долг), что на английском звучит как excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (т.е. EPOC).

Этот процесс восстановления организма можно назвать «дожиганием калорий», что во многом является восстановлением нескольких физиологических показателей до уровня, который был до начала тренировки.

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Эффект дожигания калорий длится до 24 часов — проверено учеными.

Сколько длится эффект EPOC

Существует много путаницы относительно того, как долго длится эффект EPOC. Некоторые исследования говорят о не более чем 35 минутах, а некоторые сообщают о 24 часах действия эффекта «дожигания калорий» (Borsheim & Bahr 2003).

Учёные говорят о том, что причиной таких серьезных противоречий могут быть различия в интенсивности, длительности, и, собственно, самих типах нагрузки (кардиотренировки, силовые, ВИИТ). Кроме того, научные методы и технологии измерения эффекта EPOC также разнятся между собой (Knab et al., 2011). Тем не менее, вклад EPOC в процесс управления весом нельзя сбрасывать со счетов.

Понятие «повышенный метаболизм», который наблюдается после завершения тренировок, впервые было упомянуто в 20-х годах прошлого столетия. Однако лишь в 1984 году революционное исследование докторов Глэна Гэссера и Джорджа Брукса позволило разрешить многие конфликтующие идеи и смогло объяснить несколько неизученных ранее механизмов эффекта EPOC.

Арнольд

Учёные смогли разъяснить, что химические и физические изменения, которые происходят в сокращающихся клетках нашего тела во время тренировки (вследствие чего метаболизм кислорода повышается) сохраняются и во время восстановления и составляют значительную часть эффекта EPOC. Далее авторы объясняют, что в процессе восстановления метаболизма кислорода клетки мышц расходуют дополнительное количество энергии для того, чтобы восстановить свое состояние до уровня, который был до тренировки.

Как интенсивность тренировки влияет на «дожигание калорий»

Пожалуй, фактор, который наиболее ощутимо влияет на эффект EPOC, является тренировочная интенсивность (Borsheim & Bahr, 2003).

В одном из недавних исследований (Mann et al., 2014) изучалось, как восстановятся бегуны (в эксперименте участвовало 38 мужчин и женщин в возрасте 20-40 лет) после 20 минут бега на уровне 60%, 70% и 80% от VO2max. Когда после тренировки учёные измеряли эффект EPOC, подтвердился факт, что наиболее интенсивный бег сильнее влияет на эффект «дожигания энергии» в период восстановления (специалисты измеряли EPOC на протяжении 15 минут). Этим экспериментом учёные подтвердили данные исследований предыдущих лет.

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В одном из самых уникальных исследований учёный Knab с коллегами изучал эффект EPOC в метаболической палате – маленьком закрытом пространстве, где испытуемые живут до 24 часов и дольше. Благодаря содержанию испытуемых в метаболической палате учёные имеют возможность с абсолютной точностью изучать, каким образом тренировки и двигательная активность в целом, а также питание и сон влияют на метаболизм. Специалисты изучали, как тренировки на велоэргометре на уровне 70% от VO2max длительностью 45 минут повлияют на метаболизм у 10 молодых мужчин. Для объективной оценки результатов испытуемые провели в метаболической палате 2 дня, в один из которых тренировались, а в другой – отдыхали.

В среднем за 45 минут тренировки испытуемые расходовали 519 ккал. В первые 14 часов после тренировки расход энергии в состоянии покоя значительно повысился и участники расходовали за этот период в среднем на 190 ккал больше, чем в день без тренировки. Это исследование показало, что интенсивные тренировки умеренной длительности (45 минут) обладают значительным эффектом EPOC.

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В чем разница эффекта EPOC при высокоинтенсивных силовых тренировках против обычных силовых?

Команда исследователей во главе с Паоли (2012) изучала, как повлияют на эффект EPOC высокоинтенсивная силовая тренировка и традиционная силовая тренировка. В том исследовании приняло участие 17 мужчин в возрасте 28 лет, каждый из которых имел от 4 до 6 лет опыта силовых тренировок.

На протяжении дня участники продолжали питаться одинаково и поддерживали свою ежедневную активность. По прошествии 22 часов мужчины возвращались в лабораторию, где учёные измеряли, сколько дополнительных калорий «дожигалось» после тренировки.

Традиционная силовая тренировка состояла из 8 упражнений: жима на горизонтальной скамье, тяги верхнего блока, армейского жима, сгибания на бицепс, разгибания на трицепс, жима ногами, сгибания ног в тренажёре, а также подъёмов туловища для мышц пресса. Каждое упражнение выполнялось в 4 подхода на 8-12 повторений (70-75% от 1ПМ) до достижения мышечного отказа с одной минутой отдыха между подходами для односуставных и двумя минутами отдыха для многосуставных упражнений. Вместе с 10-минутной разминкой на беговой дорожке такая тренировка в среднем длилась 62 минуты.

Высокоинтенсивная силовая тренировка состояла из 3 упражнений: жима на горизонтальной скамье, жима ногами и тяги верхнего блока, которые выполнялись в определённом стиле. В первом подходе участники выполняли упражнение до отказа с весом, который они могли поднять 6 раз, но не более. После этого следовало 20 секунд отдыха и тот же вес снова поднимался до отказа, что соответствовало приблизительно 2-3 повторениям; после очередных 20 секунд отдыха участники ещё раз выполняли подход с тем же весом отягощения до отказа на 2-3 повторения. С отдыхом в 2,5 минуты после каждого круга участники выполнили 2 таких круга для жима на горизонтальной скамье и тяги вертикального блока и 3 круга для жима ногами. Вместе с 10-минутной разминкой на беговой дорожке тренировка длилась около 32 минут.

Результаты показали, что в период 22 часов после традиционной силовой тренировки по сравнению с состоянием покоя расход энергии повысился на 5%, что выразилось в дополнительных 99 ккал.

При этом после высокоинтенсивной силовой тренировки в период 22 часов расход энергии повысился на целых 23% по сравнению с состоянием покоя – после высокоинтенсивной тренировки расходовалось 452 дополнительных ккал. Отмечается, что на покрытие дополнительных энергетических нужд организма (на эффект EPOC) в качестве источника топлива главным образом использовался жир.

ВАЖНО! В итоге во время более размеренного выполнения упражнений «на потом», на эффект EPOC откладывается для «дожигания» меньше калорий — всего 99 ккал. А во время высокоинтенсивной тренировки тело просто не успевает потребить достаточное количество кислорода для «дожигания», поэтому после тренировки сгорает больше калорий — в среднем 452 ккал.

Однако по общему итогу за обе тренировки тело тратит примерно одинаковое количество калорий: просто в первом случае бОльшая часть сжигается на самой тренировке.

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Разница между мужчинами и женщинами

Так как в недавних исследованиях участие принимали только мужчины, возникает вопрос – существуют ли различия относительно эффекта EPOC между мужчинами и женщинами.

Подводя итог в своём обзоре, учёные Borsheim and Bahr говорят о том, что по сравнению с женщинами, абсолютная величина эффекта «дожигания» у мужчин выше, однако эта разница исчезает, когда эффект EPOC корректируют относительно массы тела. Более того, специалисты отмечают, что когда EPOC выражается в процентах от общих затрат энергии, разницы между женщинами и мужчинами также нет.

ВЫВОДЫ

Данные исследований демонстрируют, что высокоинтенсивные тренировки и/или комбинация тренировок высокой интенсивности и длительных аэробных тренировок существенно влияют на эффект EPOC — значительная часть калорий дожигается после тренировки, просто потому, что тело не успевает потребить достаточное количество кислорода для «дожигания».

В случае с силовыми тренировками более высокая интенсивность выполнения упражнений с короткими периодами отдыха очень сильно влияют на эффект «дожигания калорий».

Величина и длительность эффекта EPOC выглядят довольно устойчивыми – хорошо контролируемые исследования показали, что после окончания тренировки интенсивность обменных процессов относительно метаболизма в состоянии покоя может повышаться до 24 часов.

Источник: Len Kravitz, Ph.D., Research Sheds New Light on the Exercise «Afterburn», The University of New Mexico.

 

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Эффект EPOC или «дожигание» калорий после тренировки: 101 комментарий

  1. Максим Литвин

    Если надо худеть, то наверное, круговые. А если надо нарастить мышцы, то традиционная тренировка с минутой-две отдыха лучше, согласно этой статье: http://www.zozhnik.ru/idealnyj-interval-otdyxa-mezhdu-podxodami-dlya-rosta-myshc/
    Понятно, что тут еще может стоять вопрос времени и общего удовольствия от занятий…

  2. Aleksandr Maksimenko

    Не обязательно круговые, подойдет любая тренировка высокой интенсивности: традиционная силовая со сравнительно большим весом отягощения (скажем, на 5-7 повторений), или тот же ВИИТ (включая Табату). Для достижения существенного эффекта EPOC главное — интенсивность и длительность тренировок. В целом — чем интенсивнее и длительнее тренировка, тем больше EPOC. И наоборот — короткая тренировка низкой интенсивности не будет иметь значительного эффекта EPOC.

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