7 типов «бестолковых» упражнений

Снимок экрана 2017-01-09 в 12.14.11

Зожник перевел текст тренера 2016 года по версии NSCA Ника Тумминелло о самых бесполезных упражнениях с ссылками на исследования. Передаем слово эксперту.

В интернете полно статей о глупых и опасных упражнениях, которые люди делают в фитнес залах. К сожалению, в большинстве из них авторы лишь ругают то, что не нравится лично им, не приводя никаких научных доказательств.

Тренажеров в списке нет

Начну с того, что многие сразу заносят в черный список упражнения на тренажерах, например, для сведения и разведения ног. Однако исследования показывают, что хотя в приседаниях в широкой стойке активация приводящих мышц высока (3), наибольшие значения ЭМГ, полученные в приседаниях, приседаниях на одной ноге и выпадах, ниже, чем в изолированных сведениях ног (5) — так что тренажер в активации некоторых конкретных мышц превосходит приседы и выпады.

Тут обычно возражают, что важна не активация отдельных мышц, а отработка определенного движения, якобы тренажеры не функциональны и никак не помогают нашему телу лучше бегать, прыгать, приседать и так далее.

Зожник рекомендует текст, рассказывающий о специфичности силовых показателей: грубо говоря, что тренируешь — то и улучшается. Если тренируешься на тренажерах — показываешь лучше результаты на тренажерах, чем те, кто тренируется со свободными весами. И наоборот.

Несколько исследований продемонстрировали, что тренировки на тренажерах повышают различные показатели, включая высоту прыжка, количество выполненных приседаний без отягощения за 30 секунд и скорость в спринте (6).

Итак, давайте разберемся, отделяя заблуждения от реальных доказательств, чего следует избегать.

1. Любые упражнения с целью точечного жиросжигания

Самый распространенный пример – выполнение тех же сведений ног с целью точечно сжечь жир на внутренней поверхности бедер. Как видите, смысл упражнения зависит и от контекста: хотя этот тренажер полезен (см. выше), упарываться на нем для локального жиросжигания — глупо.

локальное-жиросжигание-невозможно

Напоминаем, что локальное жиросжигание не работает (по ссылке — обзор исследований на эту тему).

Да, одно исследование 2007-го заключило, что «Выполнение упражнения может вызвать локальный липолиз и увеличить кровоток в жировой ткани, расположенной рядом с сокращаемыми мышцами» (7). Но из этого вовсе не следует вывод, будто бы определенные упражнения обеспечивают сжигание жира в избранной области. Даже если бы точечная мобилизация жира была физиологически возможна, то вы, усердно выполняя многосуставные и изолирующие упражнения, уже получали бы заметный эффект от этого феномена.

Если кто-то хочет заявить, что определенные тренировочные методы (чудо-упражнения, протокол выполнения или что-то другое) приводят к точечному жиросжиганию, он должен доказать это, проводя тщательно контролируемые эксперименты.

К слову, научный подход заключается в рассмотрении всех исследований, а не подборе подходящих с желанными результатами. Работа того же 2007-го года из журнала Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise гласит: «МРТ показало общее уменьшение подкожной жировой прослойки у участников обоих полов, подтверждая положение, что тренировки с отягощениями не вызывают локального сжигания жира» (8). То же самое говорит исследование 2013-го года: «Тренировки привели к общему снижению процента жира, но не к локальному уменьшению в прорабатываемой части тела» (9). Еще одна работа 2011-го по изучению влияния упражнений на жировые отложения в области талии: «Шестинедельная программа из упражнений для пресса не вызвала уменьшения подкожного жира в области живота или иных изменений композиции тела» (10). Не говоря уж о древнем исследовании 1984-го, которое так же утверждало, что «Выполнение обычных подъемов корпуса не приводит к преимущественному сокращению жировых клеток в абдоминальной области по сравнению с другими частями тела» (11).‬‬

Короче говоря, ничего не получится. Даже если принять, что в отложениях рядом с тренируемыми мышцами мобилизация жира повышается, проделанной работы недостаточно для заметных физических изменений.

2. Упражнения, бессмысленные с точки зрения биомеханики

В качестве примера возьмем наклоны в стороны с гантелями в обеих руках: при выполнении отягощение в одной руке компенсирует нагрузку от отягощения в другой. А боковые сгибатели туловища трудятся меньше, чем в варианте с гантелью в одной руке (не будем погружаться в дискуссию, нужны ли вообще упражнения с латеральным сгибанием позвоночника, это тема отдельной статьи).

Еще одно распространенное, но бесполезное движение – разведение с гантелями для ротаторной манжеты плеча, когда корпус вертикален, руки согнуты под прямым углом и локти прижаты к туловищу:

тупой_вариант

Так у вас получается просто изометрический подъем на бицепс. Конечно, вращатели плеча тоже участвуют, но им нужна нагрузка в горизонтальной плоскости, а в этом варианте гравитация дает вертикальную. Чтобы ротаторная манжета действительно поработала, нужно выполнять это движение на блочном тренажере или со жгутом, закрепленным сбоку на высоте локтя.

Или же, продолжая с гантелью, лечь боком на скамью:

SL-Ext.1933

Биомеханически дурацкие движения можно встретить и в кардиозоне. На наклонной беговой дорожке, например, люди часто топчутся, держась руками за поручни и отклоняясь назад. В итоге они не получают дополнительной пользы от бега в гору, потому что тело остается под тем же углом к полотну, как и на горизонтальной дорожке:

incline_wrong

3. Упражнения, риски которых превышают выгоду

Тренировки на нестабильных поверхностях могут быть полезны при восстановлении после травм тазобедренных суставов, колен и голеностопов. Или если вам нужно улучшить координацию и просто нравится на них балансировать – вы вполне можете развлекаться между подходами в силовых упражнениях или в качестве заминки.

Однако, возвращаясь к теме данной статьи, не стоит поднимать железо, шатаясь на платформе или фитболе:

Акробол-1024x640

В 2009-м баскетболист NBA Франсиско Гарсия, заключивший 5-летний контракт на $29,6 млн., пропустил большую часть игрового сезона, сломав запястье на такой тренировке. Весивший 88 кг Гарсия жал две гантели по 40 кг, лежа на фитболе, когда этот фитбол лопнул.

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Самый «неустойчивый» вариант упражнения — справа. Подробнее в тексте «Что лучше для роста силы: стабильные или неустойчивые опоры«.

Большинство людей приходят в зал, чтобы стать сильнее, набрать мышц или похудеть. Если это и ваша цель, то разумнее и безопаснее тренироваться с отягощениями, стоя на старом добром полу.

Для рекордов вам нужно генерировать максимальное усилие, для массы – перегружать мышцы, но ни с тем, ни с другим неустойчивые поверхности не помогут (12, 13).

«Функциональность» тренировок заключается в положительном переносе на спортивные результаты и физические показатели, так что более «функционально» — поднимать больше железа на стабильной поверхности.

Упражнения на фитболе не повышают способность генерировать силу и не улучшают нейромышечную координацию в той же степени, что обычные движения вроде бега, прыжков, бросков и так далее. Даже если вы не поклонник исследований, здравый смысл и интуиция подсказывают, что не стоит поднимать над собой серьезный вес, лежа, стоя или сидя на фитболе. Какими бы ни были воображаемые бонусы, риски перевешивают.

4. Упражнения, вызывающие боль

Как я пишу в своей книге Building Muscle and Performance: если от упражнения возникает боль – по какой бы то ни было причине – подберите иную вариацию или замените движение. Разумеется, я не имею в виду болевые ощущения в мышцах, связанные с интенсивной работой в спортзале. Речь идет о повреждениях, которые дают о себе знать как на самой тренировке, так и вне зала. Иногда тело так говорит, что надо дать ему больше отдыха, но порой это сигнал, что оно не может переносить данную нагрузку и становиться сильнее.

В любом случае нельзя тренироваться через боль. Казалось бы, это очевидно, но некоторые люди слишком упрямы и продолжают делать то, что их разрушает. Добьются они лишь того, что незначительная боль станет невыносимой и оборвет их тренировки.

Существует множество разнообразных упражнений, из которых всегда можно подобрать то, что подходит лично вам. Порой требуется ограничить диапазон движения, чтобы оно стало безболезненным и безопасным. Поэтому не смейтесь над теми, кто делает полуприседы, может, приседание до пола им вообще недоступно.

Задача тренировок – давать телу стресс для развития. Адаптируясь, тело становится сильнее, больше, выносливее и переносит ту же нагрузку легче, при этом снижается риск травм. Но разумный подход в том, чтобы не перебирать с тренировочным стрессом, перегружая ткани и вызывая повреждения, с которыми организм уже не справится. Не пытайтесь заставить свое тело делать то, для чего оно не предназначено. Выберите такие упражнения, которые можете выполнять качественно и эффективно.

5. Упражнения, на которые толкает гордыня

Когда эго сильнее разума, люди пытаются взять слишком большой вес в упражнении, хотя не могут справиться с ним в полном диапазоне движения и без нарушения техники.

Частичные приседания из-за травмы или иных индивидуальных ограничений – это одно, но сокращение амплитуды из-за чрезмерного веса – это совсем другое.

Любое упражнение, выполняемое с нарушением техники, можно считать дурацким, потому что оно тратит ваше время и силы, не приводя к положительному эффекту.

6. Упражнения, к которым склоняет чужое мнение

Вы должны руководствоваться не мнениями каких-то «экспертов», а общими для всех тренировочными принципами и научными доказательствами эффективности того или иного упражнения и методики.

Заявление, что нельзя стать сильным без жима лежа, приседания со штангой на спине и становой тяги, — это яркий пример того, как люди путают отдельные методы и общие тренировочные принципы. Истина же в том, что для развития силы необходима прогрессивная нагрузка. Регулируя различные тренировочные параметры (частоту, интенсивность, выбор упражнений и т.д.), вы задаете больше стресса, чем на предыдущем занятии (14).

Разумеется, многосуставные упражнения отлично нагружают, но это далеко не единственный вариант. Любое упражнение с сопротивлением может развивать силу. Каждое тренировочное приспособление имеет свои преимущества, незачем превращаться в фанатика, поклоняющегося чему-то одному (штанге, гире, фитболу и так далее). Нет каких-то особых, волшебных упражнений с определенным снарядом; вы можете результативно тренироваться и с гантелями, и на тренажерах.

Научные исследования подтверждают схожую эффективность различных вариантов упражнений, например, приседаний на одной и двух ногах для развития силы и скорости у регбистов. Результаты показали, что присед в ножницы с задней ногой на возвышении приводил к таким улучшениям силы и скорости, как классическое приседание со штангой на спине (15).

Другое исследование также показало, что упражнения, выполняемые на одной ноге и на двух, развивают силу нижней части тела без заметной разницы между группами (16). Конечно, при этом работает принцип специфичности: те, кто приседал на одной ноге, повышали результат в приседаниях на одной ноге.

Но для нас важно главное – не надо замыкаться на каком-то упражнении, снаряде или методе, как бы его ни хвалили всякие гуру. Следуйте за научными доказательствами, а не подводите их туда, куда вам хочется. Применяйте принципы сверхнагрузки и специфичности — это все, что нужно для результативных тренировок.

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Читайте подробнее об упоминаемых принципах в тексте фитнес-эксперта Сергея Струкова: «4 принципа правильной тренировки«.

7. Незавершенные упражнения (неразобранные снаряды)

Во-первых, это некультурно. Во-вторых, еще более странно, что люди, пришедшие в зал за нагрузкой, почему-то от нее отказываются. А ведь разобрать гриф или положить гантель на место – это тоже часть упражнения. Вы же брали их оттуда, когда начинали.
Так что тренировка не закончилась, пока вы не разложили все, как было до вас!

Источник: nicktumminello.com

Перевод для Зожника: Алексей Republicommando

Упоминаемые в тексте научные исследования:

1. Brandt M, et al. Perceived Loading and Muscle Activity During Hip Strengthening Exercises: Comparison Of Elastic Resistance and Machine Exercises. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2013 Dec; 8(6): 811–819.
2. DiStefano U, et al. Gluteal muscle activation during common therapeutic exercises. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(7):532-540.
3. Clark DR, Lambert MI, Hunter AM. Muscle activation in the loaded free barbell squat: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26:1169–78.
4. Pereira GR, Leporace G, Chagas D, et al. Influence of hip external rotation on hip adductor and rectus femoris myoelectric activity during a dynamic parallel squat. J Strength Cond Res 2010;24:2749–54.
5. Dwyer MK, Boudreau SN, Mattacola CG, et al. Comparison of lower extremity kinematics and hip muscle activation during rehabilitation tasks between sexes. J Athl Train 2010;45:181–90.
6. Chris Beardsley. Functional strength gains by leg pressing? Published online at https://bretcontreras.com/leg-press-functional-strength/
7. Stallknecht B, et al. Are blood flow and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue influenced by contractions in adjacent muscles in humans? American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2007 Feb;292(2):E394-9.
8. Kostek MA, et al. Subcutaneous fat alterations resulting from an upper-body resistance training program. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jul;39(7):1177-85.
9. Ramírez-Campillo R, et al. Regional fat changes induced by localized muscle endurance resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Aug;27(8):2219-24.
10. Vispute SS, et al. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):2559-64.
11. Katch, F.I., et al. Effects of sit-up exercise training on adipose cell size and adiposity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 55(3): 242-247, 1984.
12. Behm, D., Colado, JC. The Effectiveness of Resistance Training Using Unstable Surfaces And Devices For Rehabilitation. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Apr; 7(2): 226–241.
13. Anderson KG., Behm DG. Maintenance of EMG activity and loss of force output with instability. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Aug;18(3):637-40.
14. Clayton, Drake, Larkin, Linkul, Martino, Nutting, Tumminello. (2015). Foundations of Fitness Programming, Why Was the FFP Developed? (pg.5). National Strength and Conditioning Association
15. Speirs, Derrick et al. Unilateral vs. Bilateral Squat Training for Strength, Sprints, and Agility in Academy Rugby Players. J. Strength Cond Res. Feb 2016. Vol. 30, Issue 2. p386-92.
16. Rube, N, and Secher, NH. Effect of training on central factors in fatigue follows two- and one-leg static exercise in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 141(1): 87–95, 1991.
17. Ramsey Nijem, Single-Leg and Double-Leg Training Implications for Basketball. Taken from the NSCA website: https://www.nsca.com/education/articles/nsca-coach/single-leg_and_double-leg_training_in_basketball/

 

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7 типов «бестолковых» упражнений: 66 комментариев

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