6 мифов бодибилдинга, которые опровергла наука

Ник_Туминелло_2

Перевод текста Ника Туминелло тренера 2016 года по версии NSCA, где он разбивает типичные бодибилдерские мифы с помощью научных данных.

Большинство людей когда-то верило в эти мифы и если вы среди них и сейчас — это нормально. Но пора набираться ума и выяснять, что же происходит на самом деле.

Миф #1: Каждый килограмм мышц, который вы прибавляете, расходует более 100 ккал в день

Очень хотелось бы, чтоб это было так, но увы, научные эксперименты это не подтвердили. Конечно, мышечная ткань метаболически активна и тратит энергию даже в покое, однако не в таких масштабах. Ряд исследований показывает, что расход калорий от каждого килограмма мышц увеличивается лишь на 13-22 ккал в день (в оригинале 6-10 ккал/фунт, прим. пер.) – это значительно меньше 100 ккал (1,2,3,4).

Но есть и хорошая новость: чем больше мышечной ткани вы набираете, тем больше калорий тратится в расчете на каждый килограмм при интенсивных тренировках (5).

Миф #2: Нельзя одновременно и жечь жир, и строить мышцы

Исследования продемонстрировали, что такое возможно вот с такими группами людей:

• Малоподвижные мужчины с лишним весом (6),
• Пожилые мужчины и женщины (7),
• Физически активные, здоровые мужчины (8),
• Молодые женщины (9).

С энергетической точки зрения, конечно, для потери жира нужен дефицит калорий, однако гипертрофия мышц возможна и без профицита. В жире и содержится тот запас энергии, которую тело может расходовать при правильных тренировках.

Не поймите превратно: жир не превращается в мышцы (или наоборот). Но, если у вас есть лишний вес, организм может использовать жир в качестве топлива. Исследования, перечисленные выше, показывают, что чем больше у вас жира и меньше мышц, тем выше способность расходовать жировые запасы при наборе сухой массы.

Снимок экрана 2017-01-17 в 10.11.27

Мы в Зожнике сделали отдельный обзор исследований на тему, как можно жечь жир и растить мышцы одновременно.

Миф #3: Бойся кардио, бро, оно сожжет твои мышцы!

Когда стали популярны высокоинтенсивные интервальные тренировки (ВИИТ), многие люди отказались от классических аэробных нагрузок (в среднем темпе на беговой дорожке, эллиптическом или велотренажере). Однако ВИИТ подходит далеко не всем, особенно если вы новичок.

Начать занятия спортом как раз лучше всего с низкоинтенсивных кардионагрузок для укрепления сердечно-сосудистой и дыхательной систем. А когда будете без проблем осиливать 30-минутное занятие в среднем темпе, то можно добавлять высокоинтенсивные методы (10).

Однако, кое-кто до сих пор верит, будто коварное кардио мешает строить мышцы. Наука же говорит, что ничего подобного: сочетание аэробных нагрузок (на велотренажере) и упражнений с отягощениями нисколько не помешало увеличивать массу и силу ранее не тренировавшимся мужчинам. А некоторым даже помогло набрать больше мышц (11).

Другое исследование тоже показало, что кардиотренировки помогают увеличить размер мышц и аэробную производительность; это наблюдалось как у молодых, так и пожилых мужчин (12). Самое смешное, что кардио может даже препятствовать потере полезной мышечной массы и у мужчин, и у женщин (13).

Но во всех этих исследованиях участвовали люди, ранее не занимавшиеся спортом; теперь посмотрим на тех, кто тренируется давно. Например, на бодибилдеров, которые годами использовали аэробные нагрузки при подготовке к выступлениям. Они добавляли именно низкоинтенсивное кардио и сохраняли свою выдающуюся массу. И это относится не только к «профессионалам», применявшим различные препараты, натуралы поступают точно так же.

Разумный объем кардионагрузок никак не повредит вашим мышцам, особенно если у вас на первом месте остаются тренировки с железом.

А вот регулярный ВИИТ тем, кто увлекается силовыми тренировками, может и помешать, срывая восстановление. Низкоинтенсивное кардио же – наоборот, если заниматься им в дни отдыха, способствует восстановлению после больших нагрузок.

Миф #4: Идеальный диапазон для гипертрофии – 8-12 повторов

Как вы, наверное, знаете, мышечный рост обусловлен тремя факторами: механическим напряжением, повреждениями мышц и метаболическим стрессом (14). Однако, без механического напряжения (от определенных упражнений и внешних отягощений) невозможно добиться требуемых повреждений и метаболического стресса.

Так что именно напряжение — ключ к гипертрофии, а другие два фактора являются лишь его физиологическими результатами. Вот почему при выполнении подходов до отказа (или почти до отказа) с малым рабочим весом можно набрать столько же массы, сколько и с более значительным отягощением (15).

Иными словами, растить мышцы можно как малым числом повторов с большим весом, так и многоповторными подходами с отягощением поменьше. Оба варианта могут привести к гипертрофии (16). Не говоря уж о том, что эффективнее всего варьировать схемы подходов и повторений (17, 18, 19, 20).

Так что нет одного идеального диапазона, и для максимальной массы и силы следует чередовать силовые и объемные тренировки.

Смотрите также:

Снимок экрана 2017-01-17 в 10.31.25

Миф #5: Масса строится только «базой»

Если вы стремитесь развить действительно выдающуюся мускулатуру, то не обойдетесь несколькими «большими» упражнениями. Некоторые мышцы необходимо нагружать и прицельной изоляцией, чтобы они росли.

В качестве примера рассмотрим бицепс бедра: одним «базовым» движением его не проработать.

Исследователи изучали мышечную активность бицепсов бедер в следующих упражнениях: сгибания ног на тренажере, наклоны со штангой на спине, подъем корпуса сгибанием ног (glute-ham raise — прим. пер., его также называют russian curl — см также фото ниже) и румынская становая тяга. Наибольшей активация мышц была в последних двух.

Упражнение

Одно из самых эффективных упражнений на бицепс бедра по результатам исследований.

Другое исследование сравнивало упражнения, где основное движение происходит в тазобедренных суставах и в коленных, поскольку в них по-разному включается бицепс бедра (21). Было обнаружено, что сгибания ног лежа (движение в коленных суставах) больше активировало низ латеральных и медиальных пучков, чем становая тяга на прямых ногах (движение в тазобедренных).

Эти же результаты подтверждены еще одним исследованием, которое заключило, что для максимального включения бицепсов бедер в программе должны быть подъемы корпуса сгибанием ног (glute-ham raise — прим. пер.) и румынские становые (22).

Так что если двуглавые мышцы бедер у вас отстают, то, вероятно, им попросту не хватает нужных упражнений. Полноценная тренировка должна включать хотя бы одно упражнение с движением в тазобедренных суставах (румынская или другой вариант становой тяги) и одно упражнение с движением в коленных суставах (варианты сгибаний ног).

Это касается разных (квадрицепсов, ягодичных, дельтовидных): у изолирующих движений есть свои особые эффекты, добавляющие стимула для роста.

Миф #6: Набор массы не поможет в спорте

Тренеры из многих видов спорта обычно являются противниками бодибилдерских методов (вроде изолирующих упражнений), опасаясь, что их подопечные наберут бесполезной массы и ухудшат результаты. Думают, что мышцы закрепощают.

Но вернемся в реальность: спринтер не попадает на Олимпиаду после пары пробежек на дорожке, и точно так же пара подходов сгибаний ног или разгибаний рук никого не превратит в профессионального бодибилдера. Из-за нескольких подходов упражнений на тренажерах центральная нервная система не разучится выполнять сложные движения основного вида спорта, отрабатываемые по много часов в день.

Для улучшения спортивных результатов нужна не только чистая сила, мышечная масса тоже вносит свой вклад. Так что разумный бодибилдинг только поможет вам повысить свои показатели.

В частности, вес тела является одним из факторов, определяющих стабильность и способность развивать усилие. Чем больше масса спортсмена, тем он устойчивее и тем труднее с ним справиться в различных состязаниях. А те, кто меньше весит, не так устойчивы, и их проще сбить с ног (23).

Резюме: килограммов 10 дополнительной массы (мышц, а не жира, конечно же) только помогут вам в спорте, стабилизируя и позволяя прикладывать большее усилие (или сопротивляться прикладываемому к вам).

Источник: T-Nation

Перевод: Алексей Rebublicommando

Упомянутые в тексте научные источники:

1. Wang, Z., Heshka, S., Zhang, K., Boozer, C.N., & Heymsfield, S.B. (2001). Resting energy expenditure: systematic organization and critique of prediction methods. Obesity Research, 9, 331-336
2. Wang Z, Ying Z, Bosy-westphal A, et al. Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between men and women. Am J Hum Biol. 2011;23(3):333-8.
3. Wolfe RR. (2006). The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 475-482
4. Segal KR, et al. Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight. J Clin Invest. 1985 Sep;76(3):1107-12.
5. Smith, J., & McNaughton, L. (1993). The effects of intensity of exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in moderately trained men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 67, 420-425
6. Wallace MB, et al. Effects of cross-training on markers of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Sep;29(9):1170-5.
7. Iglay HB, et al. Resistance training and dietary protein: effects on glucose tolerance and contents of skeletal muscle insulin signaling proteins in older persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1005-13.
8. Dolezal BA. Et al. Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in nondieting individuals. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998 Aug;85(2):695-700.
9. Josse AR, et al. Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun;42(6):1122-30.
10. Zuhl, M. and L. Kravitz. Hiit Vs. Continuous Endurance Training: Battle Of The Aerobic Titans. IDEA Fitness Journal: February 2012.
11. Mikkola, J., H. Rusko, et al. 2012. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training in untrained men. Int J Sports Med. 33(9):702- 10.
12. Harber,M.P.,etal.2012.Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men. J Appl Physiol. 113(9):1495-504.
13. Konopka, A.R., M. Harber. 2014. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 42(2):53-61.
14. Schoenfeld, B.J. 2010. The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24 (10): 2857–72.
15. Mitchell, C.J., et al. 2012. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. Journal of Applied Physiology 113: 71–77.
16. Rhea MR, Ball SD, et al. A comparison of linear and daily undulating periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2002 May;16(2):250-5.
17. Prestes J, Frollini AB, et al. Comparison between linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training to increase strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Dec;23(9):2437-42.
18. Miranda F, Simão R, et al. Effects of linear vs. daily undulatory periodized resistance training on maximal and submaximal strength gains. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul;25(7):1824-30.
19. Simão R, Spineti J, et al. Comparison between nonlinear and linear periodized resistance training: hypertrophic and strength effects. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 May;26(5):1389-95.
20. Bartolomei S, Stout JR, et al. Block vs. Weekly Undulating Periodized Resistance Training Programs in Women. J Strength Cond Res. 2015 Oct;29(10):2679-87.
21. Schoenfeld BJ, et al. Regional Differences in Muscle Activation During Hamstrings Exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun 24.
22. McAllister MJ, et al. Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun;28(6):1573-80.
23. William C. Whiting, and Stuart Rugg. Dynatomy: Dynamic Human Anatomy. Human Kinetics 2006. Taken from Human Kinetics website

 

Смотрите также на Зожнике:

Как правильно приседать со штангой

Насколько тяжело нужно тренироваться?

Гид по кардио: кому, зачем, сколько, когда нужно заниматься кардио

Надо ли выгибаться на жиме лежа?

Что такое «перетрен» и почему это очень опасно

Как и что есть и пить после тренировки

Самые эффективные упражнения для дельтовидных

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6 мифов бодибилдинга, которые опровергла наука: 142 комментария

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